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Rack your brains and help!/61

Cours gratuits > Forum > Exercices du forum || En bas

[POSTER UNE NOUVELLE REPONSE] [Suivre ce sujet]


Rack your brains and help!/61
Message de here4u posté le 25-12-2019 à 16:31:59 (S | E | F)
Hello, Dear Hadworkers and Lovers of English, 🎄 🎁


PLEASE, HELP MY STUDENT! (he needs you - again!) Il a travaillé (beaucoup) sur des textes de saison ... et a eu envie de vous parler d'un "détail technique" ... Il a tellement travaillé qu'il n'a laissé "que" 13 fautes ! - (Euh, enfin ... lorsque je dis 13, là, il y a un petit "problème" ... Il s'obstine à ne pas comprendre une expression - deux, en fait - qu'il mélange et utilise un peu n'importe comment ... Vous allez donc devoir démêler ses confusions ...

Cet exercice mérite bien ses et la correction sera en ligne le mardi 14 janvier 2020.
I give you THE FORCE!





Georgia is home to Europe favourite Christmas tree, the fragrant Nordmann fir. So why do locals have to pay so expensive for one?

Festive shoppers love classic shape, pleasant fragrance and soft needles of the Nordmann fir. It’s Europe more popular Christmas tree. European nurseries source seeds for these trees from Georgia. In UK, you might pay between £55 and £70 ($72-92) for a 2m tree. Yet in Georgia, where the trees are endemic, prices can be four times more high.
It wasn’t always this way. In the past, Nordmann firs were available cheaply on the Georgian market – if you didn’t care the fact that they were illegally fallen. Georgian forests have been targeted by cutters falling trees illegally for the timber trade or seasonal Christmas demand; In 2011 new regulations and higher fines were implemented to deal the problem. Enforcement of these new rules has steadily become more robust. Now, very little illegal falling is still taking place./// END of PART ONE ///
Today, fines for selling or transporting illegally fallen trees are set at $415 per infraction. This has almost completely destroyed the market for illegal Christmas trees. If Georgians want a Christmas tree, their primary option is to buy of a local tree nursery – if they can afford it. Prices are extremely high because Nordmann firs are slow-grown trees: it can take till 10 years to grow a 2m specimen. Many Georgian nurseries only began to grow them when the crackdown on falling caused demand for legal trees to rise, meaning they are not yet fully grown. With a severely limited supply of legal, domestic Nordmanns, consumers are either forced to splash out on expensive imported firs or settle for cheaper home-grown alternatives that are seen as less beautiful, fragrant and prestigious./// END of PART TWO ///
However, even if prices drop, it’s unclear whether cut Christmas trees will become a popular option for regular Georgian families. Many are deeply attached to the nation’s forests and oppose falling living trees. In addition, these high prices may be helping to re-populate an old tradition. Chichilakis are straight, dry hazelnut or walnut branches that have been hand-shaved into the shape of a small coniferous tree. Decorated with small fruits and berries, they adorn houses during the Orthodox Christmas on 7 January. Selling chichilakis has been banned under Soviet rule, but the tradition is making a return today. Chichilakis range in size, and prices start from just a few dollars – much cheaper than cut trees. Since chichilakis are traditionally made only using branches which are being pruning from the trees anyway, they are also a much more environmentally friendly option./// END of the TEXT ///




A Normann or not... I hope you'll have a lot of HAPPINESS around your Christmas Tree 🎄 🎁 (I hope you'll appreciate my "gift"!) 🎅 🎄




Réponse : Rack your brains and help!/61 de magie8, postée le 26-12-2019 à 20:39:28 (S | E)
bonjour je vous souhaite à tous un bon reveillon de st Sylvestre profitez bien de la vie 😘 READY TO CORRECT

Georgia is home to Europe favourite Christmas tree, the fragrant Nordmann fir. So why do locals have to pay so expensive for one?

Festive shoppers love THE classic shape, pleasant fragrance and soft needles of the Nordmann fir. It’s Europe'S MOST popular Christmas tree. European nurseries source seeds for these trees from Georgia. In THE UK, you might pay between £55 and £70 ($72-92) for a 2m tree. Yet in Georgia, where the trees are endemic, prices can be four times AS high.
It wasn’t always this way. In the past, Nordmann firs were available cheaply on the Georgian market – if you didn't MIND the fact that they were illegally LOGGED . Georgian forests have been targeted by LOGGERS FELLING trees illegally for the timber trade or seasonal Christmas demand; In 2011 new regulations and higher fines were implemented to TACKLE the problem. Enforcement of these new rules has steadily become more robust. Now, very little illegal LOGGING is still taking place./// END of PART ONE ///
Today, fines for selling or transporting illegally FELLED trees are set at $415 per infraction. This has almost completely destroyed the market for illegal Christmas trees. If Georgians want a Christmas tree, their primary option is to buy FROM a local tree nursery – if they can afford it. Prices are extremely high because Nordmann firs are slow-GROWING trees: it can take UP TO 10 years to grow a 2m specimen. Many Georgian nurseries only began to grow them when the crackdown on LOGGING caused demand for legal trees to rise, meaning they are not yet fully grown. With a severely limited supply of legal, domestic Nordmanns, consumers are either forced to splash out on expensive imported firs or settle for cheaper home-grown alternatives that are seen as less beautiful, fragrant and prestigious./// END of PART TWO ///
However, even if prices drop, it’s unclear whether cut Christmas trees will become a popular option for regular Georgian families. Many are deeply attached to the nation’s forests and oppose FELLING LIVE trees. In addition, these high prices may be helping REPOPULARISE an old tradition. Chichilakis are straight, dry hazelnut or walnut branches that have been hand-shaved into the shape of a small coniferous tree. Decorated with small fruits and berries, they adorn houses during the Orthodox Christmas on 7 January. Selling chichilakis WAS banned under Soviet rule, but the tradition is making a return today. Chichilakis range in size, and prices start from just a few dollars – much cheaper than cut trees. Since chichilakis are traditionally made only using branches which are being PRUNED from the trees anyway, they are also a much more environmentally friendly option./// END of the TEXT ///

lOG = rondin de bois,bûche, abattage des arbres,
logger ou lumberjack ou tree feller = bûcheron : travaille en forêt pour l'exploiter
logged = veut dire aussi enregistré , noté ,(les arbres à couper sont marqués)
logger = désigne aussi le camion qui ramasse le bois coupé .


to fell= couper, abattre un arbre : les arbres sont tombés c'est vrai mais parce qu'ils étaient coupés( illégalement)
bon courage à tous




Réponse : Rack your brains and help!/61 de taiji43, postée le 29-12-2019 à 17:39:55 (S | E)
Dear Here4U

Before the New Year festivities, I focused on the student's mistakes , not easy to find without adding mine
I wish you an happy New Year’s Day 🎉
See you soon for new tests👨‍🎓

READY TO BE CORRECTED



Festive shoppers love THE classic shape, pleasant fragrance and soft needles of the Nordmann fir. It’s Europe'S MOST popular Christmas tree. European nurseries source seeds for these trees from Georgia. In THE UK, you might pay between £55 and £70 ($72-92) for a 2m tree. Yet in Georgia, where the trees are endemic, prices can be FOUR TIMES AS MUCH AS THE PRICE in the UK

It wasn’t always this way. In the past, Nordmann firs were available cheaply on the Georgian market – if you didn't MIND the fact that they were illegally fallen

Georgian forests have been targeted by cutters, falling trees illegally for the timber trade or seasonal Christmas demand; In 2011 new regulations and higher fines were implemented to deal the problem. Enforcement of these new rules has steadily become more robust. Now, very little illegal FELLING (abattage) is still taking place./// END of PART ONE ///

Today, fines for selling or transporting illegally FELLED (abattus) trees are set (ok fixer) at $415 per infraction.
This has almost completely destroyed the market for illegal Christmas trees. If Georgians want a Christmas tree, their primary option is to buy FROM a local tree nursery –

if they can afford it. Prices are extremely high because Nordmann firs are slow-GROWING (poussant doucement) trees: it can take UP 10 years to grow a 2m specimen.
Many Georgian nurseries only began to grow them when the crackdown on (répression OK) FELLINGS (abattages) caused demand for legal trees to rise, meaning they are not yet fully grown.

With a severely limited supply of legal, domestic Nordmanns, consumers are either forced to splash out on expensive imported firs or settle for cheaper home-grown , alternatives that are seen as less beautiful, fragrant and prestigious./// END of PART TWO ///

However, even if prices drop, it’s unclear whether cut Christmas trees will become a popular option for regular Georgian families.

Many are deeply attached to the nation’s forests and OPPOSED TO FELLING LIVE trees. In addition, these high prices may be HELP REVIVE an old tradition.

Chichilakis are straight, dry hazelnut or walnut branches that have been hand-shaved into the shape of a small coniferous tree. Decorated with small FRUIT and berries, they adorn houses during the Orthodox Christmas on 7 January (ok)or JANUARY 7th or JANUARY THE SEVENTH

Selling chichilakis WAS banned under Soviet rule, but the tradition is making a return today. Chichilakis range in size, and prices start from just a few dollars – much cheaper than cut trees.

Since chichilakis are traditionally made only using branches which are being PRUNED from the trees anyway, they are also a much more environmentally friendly option./// END of the TEXT ///


-------------------
Modifié par taiji43 le 30-12-2019 18:02





Réponse : Rack your brains and help!/61 de maxwell, postée le 29-12-2019 à 17:58:51 (S | E)
READY TO BE CORRECTED
Hello Here4U
Thanks a lot! The level of difficulty was perfect (I almost fell for UK... shame on me!)

Georgia is home to Europe favourite Christmas tree, the fragrant Nordmann fir. So why do locals have to pay so MUCH for one?

Festive shoppers love THE classic shape, THE pleasant fragrance and THE soft needles of the Nordmann fir. It’s Europe'S MOST popular Christmas tree. European nurseries source THEIR seeds for these trees from Georgia. In THE UK, you might pay between £55 and £70 ($72-92) for a 2m tree. Yet in Georgia, where the trees are endemic, prices can be four times HIGHER.
It HASN'T always BEEN this way. In the past, Nordmann firs were available cheaply on the Georgian market – if you didn’t care FOR the fact that they were illegally FELLED. Georgian forests have been targeted by WOODCUTTERS FELLING trees illegally for the timber trade or seasonal Christmas demand; In 2011 new regulations and higher fines were implemented to deal WITH the problem. Enforcement of these new rules has steadily become more robust. Now, very little illegal FELLING is still taking place./// END of PART ONE ///
Today, fines for selling or transporting illegally FELLED trees are set at $415 per infraction. This has almost completely destroyed the market for illegal Christmas trees. If THE Georgians want a Christmas tree, their primary option is to buy FROM a local tree nursery– if they can afford it. Prices are extremely high because Nordmann firs are slow-GROWING trees: it can take UP TO 10 years to grow a 2m specimen. Many Georgian nurseries only began to grow them when the crackdown on FELLING caused demand for legal trees to rise, meaning they are not yet fully grown. With a severely limited supply of legal, domestic Nordmanns, consumers are either forced to splash out on expensive imported firs or settle for cheaper home-grown alternatives that are seen as less beautiful, fragrant and prestigious./// END of PART TWO ///
However, even if prices drop, it’s unclear whether cut Christmas trees will become a popular option for regular Georgian families. Many are deeply attached to the nation’s forests and oppose FELLING living trees. In addition, these high prices may be helping to REVIVE an old tradition. Chichilakis are straight, dry hazelnut or walnut branches that have been hand-shaved into the shape of a small coniferous tree. Decorated with small fruits and berries, they adorn houses during the Orthodox Christmas on 7 January. Selling chichilakis HAD been banned under Soviet rule, but the tradition is making a return today. Chichilakis range in size, and prices start from just a few dollars – much cheaper than cut trees. Since chichilakis are traditionally made only using branches which are being PRUNED from the trees anyway, they are also a much more environmentally friendly option./// END of the TEXT ///



Réponse : Rack your brains and help!/61 de alpiem, postée le 29-12-2019 à 18:53:00 (S | E)

Rack your brains and help!- 61

la correction sera en ligne le mardi 14 janvier 2020.

Georgia is home FOR Europe favourite Christmas tree, the fragrant Nordmann fir. So why do locals have to pay so expensiveLY for one?

Festive shoppers love THE classic shape, pleasant fragrance and soft needles of the Nordmann fir. It's Europe'S more popular Christmas tree. European nurseries source seeds for these trees from Georgia.

In THE UK, you might pay between £55 and £70 ($72-92) for a 2m-tree. Yet in Georgia, where the trees are endemic, prices can be four times HIGHER.
It HASN'T BE always this way. In the past, Nordmann firs were available cheaply on the Georgian market ? if you didn't care the fact that they were illegally fallen.

Georgian forests have been targeted by cutters falling trees illegally for the timber trade or seasonal Christmas demand; In 2011 new regulations and higher fines were implemented to deal WITH the problem.


En enforcement of these new rules has steadily become more robust. Now, very little illegal falling is still taking place./// END of PART ONE ///

Today, fines for selling or transporting illegally fallen trees are set at $415 per infraction. This has almost completely destroyed the market OF illegal Christmas trees.
If Georgians want a Christmas tree, their primary option is to buy FROM a local tree nursery ? if they can afford it.
Prices are extremely high because Nordmann firs are slow-growING trees: it can take UP-till 10 years to grow a 2m specimen. Many Georgian nurseries only began to grow them when the crackdown on falling caused demand for legal trees/ END of PART TWO ///

However, even if prices drop, it's unclear whether CUTTING Christmas trees will become a popular option for regular Georgian families.
Many are deeply attached to the nation's forests and oppose falling living trees.
In addition, these high prices may be helping to re-populate an old tradition.

Chichilakis are straight, dry hazelnut or walnut branches that have been hand-shaved into the shape of a small coniferous tree.
Decorated with small fruits and berries, they adorn houses during the Orthodox Christmas on 7 January.
Selling chichilakis has been banned under Soviet rule, but the tradition is making a return today.

Chichilakis range in size, and prices startING from just a few dollars ? much cheaper than cut trees. Since chichilakis are traditionally made only BY using branches which are being prunED from the trees anyway, they are also a much more environmentally friendly option./// END of the TEXT ///



Réponse : Rack your brains and help!/61 de chocolatcitron, postée le 31-12-2019 à 01:11:01 (S | E)
Rack your brains and help!/61
Message de here4u posté le 25-12-2019 à 16:31:59 (S | E | F) 14 janvier 2020. FINISHED ! Je suis partante pour traduire la première partie !

typo ponctuation ligne 5 de ton texte, Here4u, entre "Christmas demand" et "In 2011" : mettre un point au lieu du point virgule.

Hello, my dear Here4u, Thanks very much for this great exercise which made me rack my brain! I did my very best and wish I succeded in your very pleasant exercise !

Hi Everybody!

PLEASE, HELP MY STUDENT! (he needs you - again!) Il a travaillé (beaucoup) sur des textes de saison ... et a eu envie de vous parler d'un "détail technique" ... Il a tellement travaillé qu'il n'a laissé "que" 13 fautes ! - (Euh, enfin ... lorsque je dis 13, là, il y a un petit "problème" ... Il s'obstine à ne pas comprendre une expression - deux, en fait - qu'il mélange et utilise un peu n'importe comment ... Vous allez donc devoir démêler ses confusions ...
Cet exercice mérite bien ses .

Here is my work:
Georgia is home to Europe ’S favourite Christmas tree, the fragrant Nordmann fir. So why do locals have to pay so expensive for one?
Festive shoppers love THE classic shape, THE pleasant fragrance and THE soft needles of the Nordmann fir. It’s Europe’S more popular Christmas tree. European nurseries source seeds for these trees from Georgia. In THE UK, you might pay between £55 and £70 ($72-92) for a 2m tree. Yet in Georgia, where the trees are endemic, prices can be four times more high.

It wasn’t always this way. In the past, Nordmann firs were available cheaply on the Georgian market – if you didn’t care the fact that they were illegally LOGGED. Georgian forests have been targeted by LOGGERS falling trees illegally for the timber trade or seasonal Christmas demand. In 2011 new regulations and higher fines were implemented to TACKLE the problem. Enforcement of these new rules has steadily become more robust. Now, very little illegal LOGGING is still taking place./// END of PART ONE ///
Today, fines for selling or transporting illegally fallen trees are set at $415 per infraction. This has almost completely destroyed the market for illegal Christmas trees. If Georgians want a Christmas tree, their primary option is to buy of a local tree nursery – if they can afford it. Prices are extremely high because Nordmann firs are slow-GROWING trees: it can take till 10 years to grow a 2m specimen. Many Georgian nurseries only began to grow them when the crackdown on LOGGING caused demand for legal trees to rise, meaning they are not yet fully grown. With a severely limited supply of legal, NURSERIES’ Nordmanns, consumers are either forced to splash out on expensive imported firs or settle for cheaper home-grown alternatives that are seen as less beautiful, fragrant and prestigious./// END of PART TWO ///
However, even if prices drop, it’s unclear whether cut Christmas trees will become a popular option for regular Georgian families. Many are deeply attached to the nation’s forests and oppose falling living trees. In addition, these high prices may be helping to RE-POPULARISE an old tradition. Chichilakis are straight, dry hazelnut or walnut branches that have been hand-shaved into the shape of a small coniferous tree. Decorated with small fruits and berries, they adorn houses during the Orthodox Christmas on 7 TH January. Selling chichilakis WAS banned under Soviet rule, but the tradition is making a return today. Chichilakis range in size, and prices start from just a few dollars – much cheaper than cut trees. Since chichilakis are traditionally made only using branches which are being PRUNED from the trees anyway, they are also a much more environmentally friendly option./// END of the TEXT ///

I send the force back to you for marking, my dear Here4u, I know how much you need it!
Have a very, very, very sweet week!
See you soon.

Bonne et heureuse année à tous !



Réponse : Rack your brains and help!/61 de joe39, postée le 05-01-2020 à 13:32:45 (S | E)
Hello, dear here4u,
Hoping that the three kings of the Epiphany can bring a little of common sense to the mankind, I send you my work, ready to be corrected.

Georgia is home to EUROPE’S favourite Christmas tree, the fragrant Nordmann fir. So why do locals have to pay so expensive for one?

Festive shoppers love THE classic shape, THE pleasant fragrance and THE soft needles of the Nordmann fir. It’s EUROPE’S MOST popular Christmas tree. European nurseries source seeds for these trees from Georgia. In THE UK, you might pay between £55 and £70 ($72-92) for a 2m tree. Yet in Georgia, where the trees are endemic, prices can be four times HIGHER.
It wasn’t always this way. In the past, Nordmann firs were available cheaply on the Georgian market – if you didn’t care the fact that they were illegally FELLED. Georgian forests have been targeted by CUTTERS FELLING trees illegally for the timber trade or seasonal Christmas demand; In 2011 new regulations and higher fines were implemented to deal WITH the problem. Enforcement of these new rules has steadily become more robust. Now, very little illegal FELLING is still taking place./// END of PART ONE ///

Today, fines for selling or transporting illegally FELLED trees are set at $415 per infraction. This has almost completely destroyed the market for illegal Christmas trees. If Georgians want a Christmas tree, their primary option is to buy FROM a local tree nursery – if they can afford it. Prices are extremely high because Nordmann firs are SLOW-GROWING trees: it can take UP TO 10 years to grow a 2m specimen. Many Georgian nurseries only began to grow them when the crackdown on FELLING caused demand for legal trees to rise, meaning they are not yet fully grown. With a severely limited supply of legal, domestic Nordmanns, consumers are either forced to splash out on expensive imported firs or settle for cheaper home-grown alternatives that are seen as less beautiful, fragrant and prestigious./// END of PART TWO //
However, even if prices drop, it’s unclear whether cut Christmas trees will become a popular option for regular Georgian families. Many are deeply attached to the nation’s forests and oppose THE FELLING OF living trees. In addition, these high prices may be helping to REPOPULARISE an old tradition. Chichilakis are straight, dry hazelnut or walnut branches that have been hand-shaved into the shape of a small coniferous tree. Decorated with small fruits and berries, they adorn houses during the Orthodox Christmas on 7 January. Selling chichilakis HAD been banned under Soviet rule, but the tradition is making a return today. Chichilakis range in size, and prices start from just a few dollars – much cheaper than cut trees. Since chichilakis are traditionally made only using branches which are being PRUNED from the trees anyway, they are also a much more environmentally friendly option./// END of the TEXT ///

I hope you have a sweet week, dear friend.

So long.
Joe39




Réponse : Rack your brains and help!/61 de maya92, postée le 06-01-2020 à 12:01:56 (S | E)
Hello Here4u - Happy new year to you and all the members

Georgia is home to Europe favourite Christmas tree, the fragrant Nordmann fir. So why do locals have to pay so MUCH for one?

Festive shoppers love THE classic shape, THE pleasant fragrance and THE soft needles of the Nordmann fir. It’s Europe MOST popular Christmas tree. European nurseries source seeds for these trees from Georgia. In THE UK, you might pay between £55 and £70 ($72-92) for a 2m tree. Yet in Georgia, where the trees are endemic, prices can be four times HIGHER. (FOUR TIMES AS HIGH) .
It HASN’T always BEEN this way. In the past, Nordmann firs were available cheaply on the Georgian market – if you didn’t care ABOUT the fact that they were illegally FELLED. Georgian forests have been targeted by WOODCUTTERS FELLING trees illegally for the timber trade or seasonal Christmas demand; In 2011 new regulations and higher fines were implemented to deal WITH the problem. Enforcement of these new rules has steadily become more robust. Now, very little illegal FELLING is still taking place./// END of PART ONE (9) ///
Today, fines for selling or transporting illegally FELLED trees are set at $415 per infraction. This has almost completely destroyed the market for illegal Christmas trees. If Georgians want a Christmas tree, their primary option is to buy IT FROM a local tree nursery – if they can afford it. Prices are extremely high because Nordmann firs are slow-GROWING trees: it can take UP TO 10 years to grow a 2m specimen. Many Georgian nurseries only began to grow them when the crackdown on FELLING caused demand for legal trees to rise, meaning they are not yet fully grown. With a severely limited supply of legal, domestic Nordmans, consumers are either forced to splash out on expensive imported firs or settle for cheaper home-grown alternatives that are seen as less beautiful, fragrant and prestigious./// END of PART TWO /// (5)

However, even if prices drop, it’s unclear whether cut Christmas trees will become a popular option for regular Georgian families. Many are deeply attached to the nation’s forests and oppose FELLING living trees. In addition, these high prices may be helping to re-POPULARIZE an old tradition. Chichilakis are straight, dry hazelnut or walnut branches that have been hand-shaved into the shape of a small coniferous tree. Decorated with small fruits and berries, they adorn houses during the Orthodox Christmas on January 7th. Selling chichilakis has been banned under Soviet rule, but the tradition is making a return today. Chichilakis range in size, and prices startS from just a few dollars – much cheaper than cut trees. Since chichilakis are traditionally made only using branches which are being PRUNED from the trees anyway, they are also a much more environmentally friendly option./// END of the TEXT ///

Your student may get all confused with the two verbs :

TO FALL - FELL – FALLEN : TOMBER
TO FELL (TRANSITIF REGULIER) : ABATTRE

For instance : The woodcutters felled an oak which fell on the road ...
Thank u and have a nice beginning f the year …



Réponse : Rack your brains and help!/61 de maxwell, postée le 09-01-2020 à 20:29:19 (S | E)
Hello
Au fait, je ne l'ai pas précisé, je suis volontaire pour le follow-up. Je prends la 2e partie si elle est libre



Réponse : Rack your brains and help!/61 de here4u, postée le 15-01-2020 à 00:00:16 (S | E)
Hello, dear hardworkers,

Voici votre correction. Quelques passages étaient délicats. Vous vous en êtes cependant très bien sortis.



Georgia is home to Europe’s (1) favourite Christmas tree, the fragrant Nordmann fir. So why do locals have to pay so much (2) for one?
Festive shoppers love the (3) classic shape, pleasant fragrance and soft needles of the Nordmann fir. It’s Europe’s (1) most (3) popular Christmas tree. European nurseries source seeds for these trees from Georgia. In the UK (4), you might pay between £55 and £70 ($72-92) for a 2m tree. Yet in Georgia, where the trees are endemic, prices can be four times as high (5).
It wasn’t always this way. In the past, Nordmann firs were available cheaply on the Georgian market – if you didn’t mind (6) the fact that they were illegally logged (7). Georgian forests have been targeted by loggers felling (7) trees illegally for the timber trade or seasonal Christmas demand. In 2011 new regulations and higher fines were implemented to tackle the problem (8). Enforcement of these new rules has steadily become more robust. Now, very little illegal logging (7) is still taking place.///END of PART 1.///
Today, fines for selling or transporting illegally felled (7) trees are set at $415 per infraction. This has almost completely destroyed the market for illegal Christmas trees. If Georgians want a Christmas tree, their primary option is to buy from (8) a local tree nursery – if they can afford it. Prices are extremely high because Nordmann firs are slow-growing trees (9): it can take up to 10 years (10) to grow a 2m specimen. Many Georgian nurseries only began to grow them when the crackdown on logging (7) caused demand for legal trees to rise, meaning they are not yet fully grown. With a severely limited supply of legal domestic Nordmanns, consumers are either forced to splash out on expensive imported firs or settle for cheaper home-grown alternatives that are seen as less beautiful, fragrant and prestigious.///END of PART 2.///
However, even if prices drop, it’s unclear whether cut Christmas trees will become a popular option for regular Georgian families. Many are deeply attached to the nation’s forests and oppose felling live trees (7). In addition, these high prices may be helping to re-popularise (11) an old tradition. Chichilakis are straight, dry hazelnut or walnut branches that have been hand-shaved into the shape of a small coniferous tree. Decorated with small fruits and berries, they adorn houses during the Orthodox Christmas on 7 January. Selling chichilakis was banned (12) under Soviet rule, but the tradition is making a return today. Chichilakis range in size, and prices start from just a few dollars – much cheaper than cut trees. Since chichilakis are traditionally made only using branches which are being pruned (13) from the trees anyway, they are also a much more environmentally friendly option.///END of the TEXT.///


(1) «Europe’s favourite Christmas tree» le cas possessif était nécessaire …
(2) Payer cher ! ABSTENEZ-VOUS du calque (sur lequel mon élève a, bien sûr, sauté !) expensive est un adjectif très souvent épithète. Il peut être attribut, mais "coûter cher …" ne PEUT pas employer la formule telle quelle.
(3) Il fallait utiliser les articles définis devant au moins la première caractéristique des sapins, puisqu’ils étaient bien déterminés (par « of the Nordmann fir… ») Les autres "the" peuvent être omis (sous-entendus), mais aussi exprimés.
(4) It’s Europe more popular Christmas tree. Ce ne pouvait être un comparatif (more popular) puisqu’il aurait fallu un ou plusieurs éléments de comparaisons. Il faut donc utiliser un superlatif = le plus … "It’s Europe’s most popular Christmas tree."
(5) be four times more high.: quatre fois plus élevé que : l’anglais britannique est formel : le « quatre fois plus élevé que » français devient « quatre fois aussi élevé que » (l’anglais américain admet l’autre forme, mais attention, c’est une faute dans un examen et dans des entretiens d’embauche autres que pour une compagnie américaine qui l’aurait précisé.) => "four times as high."
(6) if you didn’t care xxxx the fact : bien faire la différence entre 'I don‘t care' et 'I don’t mind' ;
(Leçon : [[111982 ]] ) if you didn’t mind the fact. C’est très important ! A REVOIR !
(7) To log=> to be logged=> logging = to cut trees (abattage) / cut trees from a specific land = exploiter/ abattre ; Lien internet
--
Lien internet

Dans le même ordre d’idée, Lien internet
- to fell: Lien internet

Maya a très bien compris le problème de mon étudiant : « Your student may get all confused with the two verbs :
TO FALL - FELL – FALLEN : TOMBER
TO FELL (TRANSITIF REGULIER)
For instance : "The woodcutters felled an oak which fell on the road..." Très bien vu … Méchant de ma part, mais c’est pour votre bien … et c’était tentant !
(8) to buy FROM a shop or a nursery.
(9) a slow-growing tree= adjectif composé utilisant la forme en – ing = indique une forme active. L’objet fait l’action. Ici, l’arbre grandit lentement.
(10) to take up to 10 years : = jusqu’à : Lien internet
- Bien différencier « jusqu’à » appliqué à un temps, ou à un lieu. (Les expressions employées en anglais sont très différentes ;)
(11) to re-populate Lien internet
; à bien différencier de re-popularise : Lien internet

(12) Selling chichilakis has been banned under Soviet rule,=> Selling chichilakis was banned ; même si la pratique se poursuit, ou plutôt « revient à la mode », l’interdiction, elle, appartient bien au passé révolu => prétérit.
(13) which are being pruning ; ici, l’action au présent en -ing du passif indique que l’action est en train d’être subie par la branche. Il faut donc un adjectif composé avec un participe passé : which are being pruned.

Bravo à tous ! et de ce très bon travail !

Voilà ! C'était, en somme, assez facile ... à comprendre, du moins (personne n'a protesté ! )... Maintenant, il nous reste à trouver les volontaires pour le follow-up work et vous frotter à la traduction ... Je n'ai pas récapitulé les parties déjà prises par les Hardworkers.
Je regarderai à nouveau demain ...







Réponse : Rack your brains and help!/61 de maxwell, postée le 15-01-2020 à 10:37:15 (S | E)
FINISHED
Hello!
follow-up work: Here's Part II:

Today, fines for selling or transporting illegally felled trees are set at $415 per infraction. This has almost completely destroyed the market for illegal Christmas trees. If Georgians want a Christmas tree, their primary option is to buy from a local tree nursery – if they can afford it. Prices are extremely high because Nordmann firs are slow-growing trees : it can take up to 10 years to grow a 2m specimen. Many Georgian nurseries only began to grow them when the crackdown on logging caused demand for legal trees to rise, meaning they are not yet fully grown. With a severely limited supply of legal domestic Nordmanns, consumers are either forced to splash out on expensive imported firs or settle for cheaper home-grown alternatives that are seen as less beautiful, fragrant and prestigious.

Aujourd'hui, les amendes pour vente et transport d'arbres abattus illégalement s'élèvent à 145$ par infraction. Cela a presque totalement anéanti le marché des arbres de Noël illégaux. Si les géorgiens veulent un arbre de Noël, leur première possibilité est d'acheter chez une pépinière locale, s'ils peuvent se le permettre. Les prix sont extrêmement élevés parce que les sapins du Caucase sont des arbres qui poussent lentement : cela peut prendre jusqu'à 10 ans pour faire pousser un spécimen de 2 m. De nombreuses pépinières géorgiennes ne commencèrent à les faire pousser que lorsque les mesures répressives sur l'abattage d'arbres provoquèrent une hausse de la demande en arbres coupés légalement, ce qui signifie qu'ils n'ont pas encore atteint la taille adulte. Face à une offre légale nationale de sapins du Caucase particulièrement limitée, les consommateurs sont obligés de faire des folies pour s'offrir d'onéreux sapins importés, ou bien de se contenter d'alternatives du pays, meilleur marché, mais considérées comme moins belles, moins parfumées et moins prestigieuses.

Dans ta correction, tu as mis (8) pour tackle the problem (mais tu as sauté l'explication car il y a un souci dans ta numérotation


-------------------
Modifié par maxwell le 15-01-2020 17:05





Réponse : Rack your brains and help!/61 de here4u, postée le 15-01-2020 à 17:30:47 (S | E)
Hello, dear Workers!

I hope everything's clear in the correction, which should make it easier for volunteers to do the Follow-up work. You have plenty of time, but I still want ONE volunteer!

Georgia is home to Europe’s favourite Christmas tree, the fragrant Nordmann fir. So why do locals have to pay so much for one?
Festive shoppers love the classic shape, pleasant fragrance and soft needles of the Nordmann fir. It’s Europe’s most popular Christmas tree. European nurseries source seeds for these trees from Georgia. In the UK, you might pay between £55 and £70 ($72-92) for a 2m tree. Yet in Georgia, where the trees are endemic, prices can be four times as high.
It wasn’t always this way. In the past, Nordmann firs were available cheaply on the Georgian market – if you didn’t mind the fact that they were illegally logged. Georgian forests have been targeted by loggers felling trees illegally for the timber trade or seasonal Christmas demand. In 2011 new regulations and higher fines were implemented to tackle the problem. Enforcement of these new rules has steadily become more robust. Now, very little illegal logging is still taking place.///END of PART 1.///

La Géorgie est le berceau du sapin préféré de l'Europe, le sapin Nordmann parfumé. Alors pourquoi les autochtones doivent-ils payer si cher pour un arbre ?
Pendant les Fêtes, les acheteurs adorent la forme classique, l'odeur agréable et les aiguilles douces du sapin Nordmann. C'est le sapin de Noël le plus populaire d'Europe. Les pépinières européennes s'approvisionnent en graines de ces arbres de Géorgie. Au Royaume-Uni, vous pourriez payer entre 55 et 70 livres (72-92 $) pour un arbre de 2 m. Pourtant, en Géorgie, où les arbres sont endémiques, les prix peuvent être quatre fois plus élevés.
Ce ne fut pas toujours comme ça. Dans le passé, les sapins Nordmann étaient disponibles à bas prix sur le marché géorgien - si cela ne vous dérangeait qu'ils aient été abattus illégalement. Les forêts géorgiennes ont été ciblées par des bûcherons abattant illégalement des arbres pour le commerce du bois ou la demande saisonnière de Noël. En 2011, de nouveaux règlements et des amendes plus élevées ont été mis en œuvre pour régler le problème. L'application de ces nouvelles règles est devenue de plus en plus stricte. Maintenant, très peu d'abattages illégaux ont toujours cours.///Fin de la première partie./// PARFAIT, Choco! Très bien compris ! BRAVO !


Today, fines for selling or transporting illegally felled trees are set at $415 per infraction. This has almost completely destroyed the market for illegal Christmas trees. If Georgians want a Christmas tree, their primary option is to buy from a local tree nursery – if they can afford it. Prices are extremely high because Nordmann firs are slow-growing trees: it can take up to 10 years to grow a 2m specimen. Many Georgian nurseries only began to grow them when the crackdown on logging caused demand for legal trees to rise, meag they are not yet fully grown. With a severely limited supply of legal domestic Nordmanns, consumers are either forced to splash out on expensive imported firs or settle for cheaper home-grown alternatives that are seen as less beautiful, fragrant and prestigious.///END of PART 2.///

Aujourd'hui, les amendes pour vente et transport d'arbres abattus illégalement s'élèvent à 145$ par infraction. Cela a presque totalement anéanti le marché des arbres de Noël illégaux. Si les Géorgiens veulent un arbre de Noël, leur première possibilité est d'acheter chez une pépinière locale, s'ils peuvent se le permettre. Les prix sont extrêmement élevés parce que les sapins du Caucase sont des arbres qui poussent lentement : cela peut prendre jusqu'à 10 ans pour faire pousser un spécimen de 2 m. De nombreuses pépinières géorgiennes ne commencèrent à les faire pousser que lorsque les mesures répressives sur l'abattage d'arbres provoquèrent une hausse de la demande en arbres coupés légalement, ce qui signifie qu'ils n'ont pas encore atteint la taille adulte. Face à une offre légale nationale de sapins du Caucase particulièrement limitée, les consommateurs sont obligés de faire des folies pour s'offrir d'onéreux sapins importés, ou bien de se contenter d'alternatives du pays, meilleur marché, mais considérées comme moins belles, moins parfumées et moins prestigieuses.
Un très grand BRAVO et MERCI, Maxwell.

However, even if prices drop, it’s unclear whether cut Christmas trees will become a popular option for regular Georgian families. Many are deeply attached to the nation’s forests and oppose felling live trees. In addition, these high prices may be helping to re-popularise an old tradition. Chichilakis are straight, dry hazelnut or walnut branches that have been hand-shaved into the shape of a small coniferous tree. Decorated with small fruits and berries, they adorn houses during the Orthodox Christmas on 7 January. Selling chichilakis was banned under Soviet rule, but the tradition is making a return today. Chichilakis range in size, and prices start from just a few dollars – much cheaper than cut trees. Since chichilakis are traditionally made only using branches which are being pruned from the trees anyway, they are also a much more environmentally friendly option.///END of the TEXT.///

Cependant, même si les prix baissent, il n'est pas clair que les arbres de Noël coupés deviendront une option populaire pour les familles géorgiennes autochtones. Beaucoup sont profondément attachées aux forêts de la nation et s'opposent à la l’abattage d’arbres vivants. En outre, ces prix élevés peuvent aider à repopulariser une vieille tradition. Les chichilakis sont des branches droites, sèches de noisetiers ou de noyers qui ont été taillées à la main sous la forme d'un petit conifère. *** Décorés de petits fruits et de baies, ils ornent les maisons pendant le Noël Orthodoxe du 7 janvier. La vente de chichilakis fut interdite sous la domination soviétique, mais la tradition fait un retour aujourd'hui. (Les) chichilakis : le choix dans les dimensions et les prix commencent à partir de seulement quelques dollars - beaucoup moins chers que les arbres coupés. Puisque les chichilakis sont traditionnellement fabriqués uniquement en utilisant des branches taillées des arbres de toute façon, qui sont aussi une option beaucoup plus respectueuse de l'environnement./// FIN du TEXTE /// TTBTrès bon travail, Choco!





Merci à vous Ô travailleurs de tous les jours ... et un MERCI spécial à nos deux volontaires inconditionnels !




Réponse : Rack your brains and help!/61 de chocolatcitron, postée le 16-01-2020 à 02:04:42 (S | E)
Hello my dear Here4u!
Hi everybody!

FINISHED!

Here is my work:
Georgia is home to Europe’s favourite Christmas tree, the fragrant Nordmann fir. So why do locals have to pay so much for one?
Festive shoppers love the classic shape, pleasant fragrance and soft needles of the Nordmann fir. It’s Europe’s most popular Christmas tree. European nurseries source seeds for these trees from Georgia. In the UK, you might pay between £55 and £70 ($72-92) for a 2m tree. Yet in Georgia, where the trees are endemic, prices can be four times as high.
It wasn’t always this way. In the past, Nordmann firs were available cheaply on the Georgian market – if you didn’t mind the fact that they were illegally logged. Georgian forests have been targeted by loggers felling trees illegally for the timber trade or seasonal Christmas demand. In 2011 new regulations and higher fines were implemented to tackle the problem. Enforcement of these new rules has steadily become more robust. Now, very little illegal logging is still taking place.///END of PART 1.///

La Géorgie abrite le sapin préféré de l'Europe, le sapin Nordmann parfumé. Alors pourquoi les autochtones doivent-ils payer si cher pour un arbre ?
Les acheteurs pendant les Fêtes adorent la forme classique, le parfum agréable et les aiguilles douces du sapin Nordmann. C'est le sapin de Noël le plus populaire d'Europe. Les pépinières européennes s'approvisionnent en graines de ces arbres de Géorgie. Au Royaume-Uni, vous pourriez payer entre 55 et 70 livres (72-92 $) pour un arbre de 2 m. Pourtant, en Géorgie, où les arbres sont endémiques, les prix peuvent être quatre fois plus élevés.
Ce ne fut pas toujours comme ça. Dans le passé, les sapins Nordmann étaient disponibles à bas prix sur le marché géorgien - si vous ne vous souciiez pas (si cela ne vous dérangeait pas) du fait qu'ils ont été illégalement abattus. Les forêts géorgiennes ont été ciblées par des bûcherons abattant illégalement des arbres pour le commerce du bois ou la demande saisonnière de Noël. En 2011, de nouveaux règlements et des amendes plus élevées ont été mis en œuvre pour régler le problème. L'application de ces nouvelles règles est devenue de plus en plus stricte. Maintenant, très peu d'abattages illégaux ont toujours cours.///Fin de la première partie.///


ET VOICI LA TROISIÈME PARTIE, je saisis cette opportunité, puisque personne ne s'est décidé(e) ce qui te permet de terminer ce forum et de te libérer pour d'autres choses : c'est avec plaisir que je retravaille ce texte, ce qui permet de m'améliorer dans les deux langues : on a rien sans rien… ! Merci.


Here is my work:
However, even if prices drop, it’s unclear whether cut Christmas trees will become a popular option for regular Georgian families. Many are deeply attached to the nation’s forests and oppose felling live trees. In addition, these high prices may be helping to re-popularise an old tradition. Chichilakis are straight, dry hazelnut or walnut branches that have been hand-shaved into the shape of a small coniferous tree. Decorated with small fruits and berries, they adorn houses during the Orthodox Christmas on 7 January. Selling chichilakis was banned under Soviet rule, but the tradition is making a return today. Chichilakis range in size, and prices start from just a few dollars – much cheaper than cut trees. Since chichilakis are traditionally made only using branches which are being pruned from the trees anyway, they are also a much more environmentally friendly option.///END of the TEXT.///

Cependant, même si les prix baissent, il n'est pas clair que les arbres de Noël coupés deviendront une option populaire pour les familles géorgiennes autochtones. Beaucoup sont profondément attachées aux forêts de la nation et s'opposent à la l’abattage d’arbres vivants. En outre, ces prix élevés peuvent aider à repopulariser une vieille tradition. Les chichilakis sont des branches droites, sèches de noisetiers ou de noyers qui ont été taillées à la main sous la forme d'un petit conifère. *** Décorés de petits fruits et de baies, ils ornent les maisons pendant le Noël Orthodoxe du 7 janvier. La vente de chichilakis fut interdite sous la domination soviétique, mais la tradition fait un retour aujourd'hui. (Les) chichilakis : le choix dans les dimensions et les prix commencent à partir de seulement quelques dollars - beaucoup moins chers que les arbres coupés. Puisque les chichilakis sont traditionnellement fabriqués uniquement en utilisant des branches taillées des arbres de toute façon, qui sont aussi une option beaucoup plus respectueuse de l'environnement./// END du TEXTE /// TTB


*** Les chichilakis sont des branches de noisetiers ou de noyers transformées en petits sapins, il s'avère que chichilakis soit du genre masculin… Donc décorés.
www.aux4vents.org/georgie-tradition-noel-chichilaki-gozinaki/


Bien que cette vidéo soit entièrement en géorgien, elle est intéressante pour voir le travail de transformation fait sur les branches de noisetiers.
Lien internet


Merci pour tes explications et tout ton travail de synthèse, Here4u!
Have a very sweet week, each of You!
See you soon.



Réponse : Rack your brains and help!/61 de here4u, postée le 16-01-2020 à 05:55:38 (S | E)
UN ÉNORME MERCI et BRAVO à toi, ma Choco pour cette recherche et trouvaille du plus grand intérêt pour la découverte de coutumes inconnues de nous et respectueuses de la Nature. On a voulu les faire oublier et elles renaissent... . C’est TRÈS intéressant ... et les résultats sont encore typiques et très jolis.
J’ai regardé cette vidéo passionnante plusieurs fois ( je ne suis pas encore bilingue géorgien mais il ne faut pas désespérer.... ) Il n’y a plus qu’à espérer qu’un jour les vidéos géorgiennes seront sous-titrées en anglais ... et réciproquement ...
Très beau document .... Vraiment.




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